【云原生 · Kubernetes】kubeadm创建集群

Iceberg

文章目录

Java面试题及答案


请参照以前Docker安装。先提前为所有机器安装Docker

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1. 安装kubeadm

  • 一台兼容的 Linux 主机。Kubernetes 项目为基于 Debian 和 Red Hat 的 Linux 发行版以及一些不提供包管理器的发行版提供通用的指令

    软件开发

  • 每台机器 2 GB 或更多的 RAM (如果少于这个数字将会影响你应用的运行内存)

    vue组件中props属性

  • 2 CPU 核或更多

    RepVGG

  • 集群中的所有机器的网络彼此均能相互连接(公网和内网都可以)

    UI界面

  • 设置防火墙放行规则

    比例微分积分

  • 节点之中不可以有重复的主机名、MAC 地址或 product_uuid。请参见这里了解更多详细信息。

    封装

  • 设置不同hostname

    傅立叶分析

  • 开启机器上的某些端口。请参见这里 了解更多详细信息。

    背景

  • 内网互信

    Unity小技巧

  • 禁用交换分区。为了保证 kubelet 正常工作,你 必须 禁用交换分区。

    flowable

  • 永久关闭

    Spring Boot

1.1 基础环境

所有机器执行以下操作

php

#各个机器设置自己的域名
hostnamectl set-hostname xxxx


# 将 SELinux 设置为 permissive 模式(相当于将其禁用)
sudo setenforce 0
sudo sed -i 's/^SELINUX=enforcing$/SELINUX=permissive/' /etc/selinux/config

#关闭swap
swapoff -a  
sed -ri 's/.*swap.*/#&/' /etc/fstab

#允许 iptables 检查桥接流量
cat <<EOF | sudo tee /etc/modules-load.d/k8s.conf
br_netfilter
EOF

cat <<EOF | sudo tee /etc/sysctl.d/k8s.conf
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1
EOF
sudo sysctl --system

1.2 安装kubelet、kubeadm、kubectl

cat <<EOF | sudo tee /etc/yum.repos.d/kubernetes.repo
[kubernetes]
name=Kubernetes
baseurl=http://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/repos/kubernetes-el7-x86_64
enabled=1
gpgcheck=0
repo_gpgcheck=0
gpgkey=http://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/yum-key.gpg
   http://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/rpm-package-key.gpg
exclude=kubelet kubeadm kubectl
EOF


sudo yum install -y kubelet-1.20.9 kubeadm-1.20.9 kubectl-1.20.9 --disableexcludes=kubernetes

sudo systemctl enable --now kubelet

kubelet 现在每隔几秒就会重启,因为它陷入了一个等待 kubeadm 指令的死循环

render

2 使用kubeadm引导集群

2.1 下载各个机器需要的镜像

sudo tee ./images.sh <<-'EOF'
#!/bin/bash
images=(
kube-apiserver:v1.20.9
kube-proxy:v1.20.9
kube-controller-manager:v1.20.9
kube-scheduler:v1.20.9
coredns:1.7.0
etcd:3.4.13-0
pause:3.2
)
for imageName in ${images[@]} ; do
docker pull registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/lfy_k8s_images/$imageName
done
EOF
   
chmod +x ./images.sh && ./images.sh

2.2初始化主节点

#所有机器添加master域名映射,以下需要修改为自己的
echo "172.31.0.4  cluster-endpoint" >> /etc/hosts



#主节点初始化
kubeadm init \
--apiserver-advertise-address=172.31.0.4 \
--control-plane-endpoint=cluster-endpoint \
--image-repository registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/lfy_k8s_images \
--kubernetes-version v1.20.9 \
--service-cidr=10.96.0.0/16 \
--pod-network-cidr=192.168.0.0/16

#所有网络范围不重叠
Your Kubernetes control-plane has initialized successfully!

To start using your cluster, you need to run the following as a regular user:

  mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
  sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
  sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

Alternatively, if you are the root user, you can run:

  export KUBECONFIG=/etc/kubernetes/admin.conf

You should now deploy a pod network to the cluster.
Run "kubectl apply -f [podnetwork].yaml" with one of the options listed at:
  https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/cluster-administration/addons/

You can now join any number of control-plane nodes by copying certificate authorities
and service account keys on each node and then running the following as root:

  kubeadm join cluster-endpoint:6443 --token hums8f.vyx71prsg74ofce7 \
    --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:a394d059dd51d68bb007a532a037d0a477131480ae95f75840c461e85e2c6ae3 \
    --control-plane 

Then you can join any number of worker nodes by running the following on each as root:

kubeadm join cluster-endpoint:6443 --token hums8f.vyx71prsg74ofce7 \
    --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:a394d059dd51d68bb007a532a037d0a477131480ae95f75840c461e85e2c6ae3
#查看集群所有节点
kubectl get nodes

#根据配置文件,给集群创建资源
kubectl apply -f xxxx.yaml

#查看集群部署了哪些应用?
docker ps   ===   kubectl get pods -A
# 运行中的应用在docker里面叫容器,在k8s里面叫Pod
kubectl get pods -A

2.3 根据提示继续

master成功后提示如下:

三维

image-20221022211923372

自动

2.3.1 设置.kube/config

复制上面命令

Spring中的bean使用

2.3.2 安装网络组件

calico官网

tornado

curl https://docs.projectcalico.org/manifests/calico.yaml -O

kubectl apply -f calico.yaml

2.4 加入node节点

kubeadm join cluster-endpoint:6443 --token x5g4uy.wpjjdbgra92s25pp \
	--discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:6255797916eaee52bf9dda9429db616fcd828436708345a308f4b917d3457a22

新令牌

core dump

kubeadm token create –print-join-command

霍夫曼树

高可用部署方式,也是在这一步的时候,使用添加主节点的命令即可

文件操作

2.5 验证集群

  • 验证集群节点状态

    STL

    • kubectl get nodes

2.6 部署dashboard

2.6.1 部署

kubernetes官方提供的可视化界面

raft

https://github.com/kubernetes/dashboard

L298N

kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/dashboard/v2.3.1/aio/deploy/recommended.yaml
# Copyright 2017 The Kubernetes Authors.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

apiVersion: v1
kind: Namespace
metadata:
  name: kubernetes-dashboard

---

apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard

---

kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
spec:
  ports:
    - port: 443
      targetPort: 8443
  selector:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard

---

apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
type: Opaque

---

apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-csrf
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
type: Opaque
data:
  csrf: ""

---

apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-key-holder
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
type: Opaque

---

kind: ConfigMap
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-settings
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard

---

kind: Role
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
rules:
  # Allow Dashboard to get, update and delete Dashboard exclusive secrets.
  - apiGroups: [""]
    resources: ["secrets"]
    resourceNames: ["kubernetes-dashboard-key-holder", "kubernetes-dashboard-certs", "kubernetes-dashboard-csrf"]
    verbs: ["get", "update", "delete"]
    # Allow Dashboard to get and update 'kubernetes-dashboard-settings' config map.
  - apiGroups: [""]
    resources: ["configmaps"]
    resourceNames: ["kubernetes-dashboard-settings"]
    verbs: ["get", "update"]
    # Allow Dashboard to get metrics.
  - apiGroups: [""]
    resources: ["services"]
    resourceNames: ["heapster", "dashboard-metrics-scraper"]
    verbs: ["proxy"]
  - apiGroups: [""]
    resources: ["services/proxy"]
    resourceNames: ["heapster", "http:heapster:", "https:heapster:", "dashboard-metrics-scraper", "http:dashboard-metrics-scraper"]
    verbs: ["get"]

---

kind: ClusterRole
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
rules:
  # Allow Metrics Scraper to get metrics from the Metrics server
  - apiGroups: ["metrics.k8s.io"]
    resources: ["pods", "nodes"]
    verbs: ["get", "list", "watch"]

---

apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: RoleBinding
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: Role
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
subjects:
  - kind: ServiceAccount
    name: kubernetes-dashboard
    namespace: kubernetes-dashboard

---

apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
subjects:
  - kind: ServiceAccount
    name: kubernetes-dashboard
    namespace: kubernetes-dashboard

---

kind: Deployment
apiVersion: apps/v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
spec:
  replicas: 1
  revisionHistoryLimit: 10
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
    spec:
      containers:
        - name: kubernetes-dashboard
          image: kubernetesui/dashboard:v2.3.1
          imagePullPolicy: Always
          ports:
            - containerPort: 8443
              protocol: TCP
          args:
            - --auto-generate-certificates
            - --namespace=kubernetes-dashboard
            # Uncomment the following line to manually specify Kubernetes API server Host
            # If not specified, Dashboard will attempt to auto discover the API server and connect
            # to it. Uncomment only if the default does not work.
            # - --apiserver-host=http://my-address:port
          volumeMounts:
            - name: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
              mountPath: /certs
              # Create on-disk volume to store exec logs
            - mountPath: /tmp
              name: tmp-volume
          livenessProbe:
            httpGet:
              scheme: HTTPS
              path: /
              port: 8443
            initialDelaySeconds: 30
            timeoutSeconds: 30
          securityContext:
            allowPrivilegeEscalation: false
            readOnlyRootFilesystem: true
            runAsUser: 1001
            runAsGroup: 2001
      volumes:
        - name: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
          secret:
            secretName: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
        - name: tmp-volume
          emptyDir: {}
      serviceAccountName: kubernetes-dashboard
      nodeSelector:
        "kubernetes.io/os": linux
      # Comment the following tolerations if Dashboard must not be deployed on master
      tolerations:
        - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/master
          effect: NoSchedule

---

kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: dashboard-metrics-scraper
  name: dashboard-metrics-scraper
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
spec:
  ports:
    - port: 8000
      targetPort: 8000
  selector:
    k8s-app: dashboard-metrics-scraper

---

kind: Deployment
apiVersion: apps/v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: dashboard-metrics-scraper
  name: dashboard-metrics-scraper
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
spec:
  replicas: 1
  revisionHistoryLimit: 10
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      k8s-app: dashboard-metrics-scraper
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        k8s-app: dashboard-metrics-scraper
      annotations:
        seccomp.security.alpha.kubernetes.io/pod: 'runtime/default'
    spec:
      containers:
        - name: dashboard-metrics-scraper
          image: kubernetesui/metrics-scraper:v1.0.6
          ports:
            - containerPort: 8000
              protocol: TCP
          livenessProbe:
            httpGet:
              scheme: HTTP
              path: /
              port: 8000
            initialDelaySeconds: 30
            timeoutSeconds: 30
          volumeMounts:
          - mountPath: /tmp
            name: tmp-volume
          securityContext:
            allowPrivilegeEscalation: false
            readOnlyRootFilesystem: true
            runAsUser: 1001
            runAsGroup: 2001
      serviceAccountName: kubernetes-dashboard
      nodeSelector:
        "kubernetes.io/os": linux
      # Comment the following tolerations if Dashboard must not be deployed on master
      tolerations:
        - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/master
          effect: NoSchedule
      volumes:
        - name: tmp-volume
          emptyDir: {}

2.6.2 设置访问端口

kubectl edit svc kubernetes-dashboard -n kubernetes-dashboard

type: ClusterIP 改为 type: NodePort

ERC 1155

kubectl get svc -A |grep kubernetes-dashboard
## 找到端口,在安全组放行

访问: https://集群任意IP:端口 https://139.198.165.238:32759

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2.6.3 创建访问账号

#创建访问账号,准备一个yaml文件; vi dash.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  name: admin-user
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
  name: admin-user
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: cluster-admin
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
  name: admin-user
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
kubectl apply -f dash.yaml

2.6.4 令牌访问

#获取访问令牌
kubectl -n kubernetes-dashboard get secret 
$(kubectl -n kubernetes-dashboard get sa/admin-user -o jsonpath=
"{.secrets[0].name}") -o go-template="{{.data.token | base64decode}}"
eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6InpXSkU0TjhCUmVKQzBJaC03Nk9ES2NMZ1daRT
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W50Iiwia3ViZXJuZXRlcy5pby9zZXJ2aWNlYWNjb3VudC9uYW1lc3BhY2UiOiJrdWJ
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Aq21E4804PUhe9Rr9e_uFzLfoFDXacjJrHCuhiML8lpHIfJLK_vSD2pZNaYc2NWZq2
Mso-
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PTwa9jgbZfSYAfhOHWmZxNYo7CF2sHH-
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3zghfKlp0Rgb8l56AAI7ML_snF59X6JqaCuAcCJjIu0FUTS5DuyIObEeXY-z-Rw

2.6.5 界面

jb3VudC9zZXJ2aWNlLWFjY291bnQubmFtZSI6ImFkbWluLXVzZXIiLCJrdWJlcm5ld
GVzLmlvL3NlcnZpY2VhY2NvdW50L3NlcnZpY2UtYWNjb3VudC51aWQiOiIzOTZmYjd
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35_R0iBfBW7fF198h_klEnN6pRKfk_roAzOtAN-
Aq21E4804PUhe9Rr9e_uFzLfoFDXacjJrHCuhiML8lpHIfJLK_vSD2pZNaYc2NWZq2
Mso-
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PTwa9jgbZfSYAfhOHWmZxNYo7CF2sHH-
AT_WmIE8xLmB7J11vDzaunv92xoUoI0ju7OBA2WRr61bOmSd8WJgLCDcyBblxz4Wa-
3zghfKlp0Rgb8l56AAI7ML_snF59X6JqaCuAcCJjIu0FUTS5DuyIObEeXY-z-Rw

2.6.5 界面

image-20221022215805081

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